Moscow weather is classified as humid continental; it is however characterized by marked variations in temperatures between summer and winter, its two predominant seasons. As a thumb rule though, Moscow weather is characterized by warm and rather humid summers and bitterly cold winters.
Weather in Moscow is also characteristically unstable; the sweltering heat of summer is frequently intercepted by sudden cold spells usually followed by extended downpours, while during winter sunshine is occasionally sufficiently strong enough to force the occurrence of long-run thaws. On average Moscow enjoys 1731 hours of sunshine per year, and an average temperature of 5.4 °C (41.7 °F), with 194 days of above-zero and 103 days of below-zero temperature every year.
Recent developments in global warming, have left their indelible marks on Moscow weather, pushing temperatures up by 2-3 degrees during the first half of the year, while a decrease of around 0.5 degrees has been registered for both November and December.
As November rolls in, winter begins its reign over Moscow, bringing along bitterly cold weather conditions, covering the terrain in a thick layer of snow. And while the snow covered Moscow is a feast for the eyes, providing abundant opportunities for spectacular photos, temperatures tend to take a nose dive, plummeting to lows of −10 °C (14.0 °F). There are however long periods when winter weather in Moscow retains a comparatively milder disposition pushing temperatures to hover around 0 °C (32 °F).
My March snow begins to melt and temperatures start their steady ascent. By summer, temperature averages hover around 22°C (72°F); there are however prolonged period when heat waves slipping in from the south push temperatures to highs of 32°C (90°F), especially between May and September.
On the downside, the predominantly fine and pleasant weather in Moscow during the summer season is frequently marred by downpours; after all summer also coincides with the city’s wet season. Again, because of the impact global warming has had on the patterns of Moscow weather, in recent years August and October have become the wettest months and April the driest, with minimal amount of precipitation.
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